Java Software Solutions - Chapter 3: Using Classes and Objects

We can create more interesting programs using predefined classes and related objects

Chapter 3 focuses on:

object creation and object references

the String class and its methods

the Java API class library

the Random and Math classes

formatting output

enumerated types

wrapper classes

graphical components and containers

labels and images

 

pptx84 trang | Chuyên mục: Java | Chia sẻ: dkS00TYs | Ngày: 08/06/2015 | Lượt xem: 1389 | Lượt tải: 1download
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and largest int values Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Autoboxing Autoboxing is the automatic conversion of a primitive value to a corresponding wrapper object: 	Integer obj; 	int num = 42; 	obj = num; The assignment creates the appropriate Integer object The reverse conversion (called unboxing) also occurs automatically as needed Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Quick Check Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Are the following assignments valid? Explain. Double value = 15.75; Character ch = new Character('T'); char myChar = ch; Quick Check Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Are the following assignments valid? Explain. Double value = 15.75; Character ch = new Character('T'); char myChar = ch; Yes. The double literal is autoboxed into a Double object. Yes, the char in the object is unboxed before the assignment. Outline Creating Objects The String Class The Random and Math Classes Formatting Output Enumerated Types Wrapper Classes Components and Containers Images Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Graphical Applications Except for the applets seen in Chapter 2, the example programs we've explored thus far have been text-based They are called command-line applications, which interact with the user using simple text prompts Let's examine some Java applications that have graphical components These components will serve as a foundation to programs that have true graphical user interfaces (GUIs) Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. GUI Components A GUI component is an object that represents a screen element such as a button or a text field GUI-related classes are defined primarily in the java.awt and the javax.swing packages The Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) was the original Java GUI package The Swing package provides additional and more versatile components Both packages are needed to create a Java GUI-based program Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. GUI Containers A GUI container is a component that is used to hold and organize other components A frame is a container displayed as a separate window with a title bar It can be repositioned and resized on the screen as needed A panel is a container that cannot be displayed on its own but is used to organize other components A panel must be added to another container (like a frame or another panel) to be displayed Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. GUI Containers A GUI container can be classified as either heavyweight or lightweight A heavyweight container is one that is managed by the underlying operating system A lightweight container is managed by the Java program itself Occasionally this distinction is important A frame is a heavyweight container and a panel is a lightweight container Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Labels A label is a GUI component that displays a line of text and/or an image Labels are usually used to display information or identify other components in the interface Let's look at a program that organizes two labels in a panel and displays that panel in a frame This program is not interactive, but the frame can be repositioned and resized See Authority.java Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. //******************************************************************** // Authority.java Author: Lewis/Loftus // // Demonstrates the use of frames, panels, and labels. //******************************************************************** import java.awt.*; import javax.swing.*; public class Authority { //----------------------------------------------------------------- // Displays some words of wisdom. //----------------------------------------------------------------- public static void main (String[] args) { JFrame frame = new JFrame ("Authority"); frame.setDefaultCloseOperation (JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE); JPanel primary = new JPanel(); primary.setBackground (Color.yellow); primary.setPreferredSize (new Dimension(250, 75)); continued Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. continued JLabel label1 = new JLabel ("Question authority,"); JLabel label2 = new JLabel ("but raise your hand first."); primary.add (label1); primary.add (label2); frame.getContentPane().add(primary); frame.pack(); frame.setVisible(true); } } Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. continued JLabel label1 = new JLabel ("Question authority,"); JLabel label2 = new JLabel ("but raise your hand first."); primary.add (label1); primary.add (label2); frame.getContentPane().add(primary); frame.pack(); frame.setVisible(true); } } Nested Panels Containers that contain other components make up the containment hierarchy of an interface This hierarchy can be as intricate as needed to create the visual effect desired The following example nests two panels inside a third panel – note the effect this has as the frame is resized See NestedPanels.java Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. //******************************************************************** // NestedPanels.java Author: Lewis/Loftus // // Demonstrates a basic componenet hierarchy. //******************************************************************** import java.awt.*; import javax.swing.*; public class NestedPanels { //----------------------------------------------------------------- // Presents two colored panels nested within a third. //----------------------------------------------------------------- public static void main (String[] args) { JFrame frame = new JFrame ("Nested Panels"); frame.setDefaultCloseOperation (JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE); // Set up first subpanel JPanel subPanel1 = new JPanel(); subPanel1.setPreferredSize (new Dimension(150, 100)); subPanel1.setBackground (Color.green); JLabel label1 = new JLabel ("One"); subPanel1.add (label1); continued Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. continued // Set up second subpanel JPanel subPanel2 = new JPanel(); subPanel2.setPreferredSize (new Dimension(150, 100)); subPanel2.setBackground (Color.red); JLabel label2 = new JLabel ("Two"); subPanel2.add (label2); // Set up primary panel JPanel primary = new JPanel(); primary.setBackground (Color.blue); primary.add (subPanel1); primary.add (subPanel2); frame.getContentPane().add(primary); frame.pack(); frame.setVisible(true); } } Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. continued // Set up second subpanel JPanel subPanel2 = new JPanel(); subPanel2.setPreferredSize (new Dimension(150, 100)); subPanel2.setBackground (Color.red); JLabel label2 = new JLabel ("Two"); subPanel2.add (label2); // Set up primary panel JPanel primary = new JPanel(); primary.setBackground (Color.blue); primary.add (subPanel1); primary.add (subPanel2); frame.getContentPane().add(primary); frame.pack(); frame.setVisible(true); } } Outline Creating Objects The String Class The Random and Math Classes Formatting Output Enumerated Types Wrapper Classes Components and Containers Images Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Images Images can be displayed in a Java program in various ways As we've seen, a JLabel object can be used to display a line of text It can also be used to display an image That is, a label can be composed of text, an image, or both at the same time Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Images The ImageIcon class is used to represent the image that is stored in a label If text is also included, the position of the text relative to the image can be set explicitly The alignment of the text and image within the label can be set as well See LabelDemo.java Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. //******************************************************************** // LabelDemo.java Author: Lewis/Loftus // // Demonstrates the use of image icons in labels. //******************************************************************** import java.awt.*; import javax.swing.*; public class LabelDemo { //----------------------------------------------------------------- // Creates and displays the primary application frame. //----------------------------------------------------------------- public static void main (String[] args) { JFrame frame = new JFrame ("Label Demo"); frame.setDefaultCloseOperation (JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE); ImageIcon icon = new ImageIcon ("devil.gif"); JLabel label1, label2, label3; label1 = new JLabel ("Devil Left", icon, SwingConstants.CENTER); continued Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. continued label2 = new JLabel ("Devil Right", icon, SwingConstants.CENTER); label2.setHorizontalTextPosition (SwingConstants.LEFT); label2.setVerticalTextPosition (SwingConstants.BOTTOM); label3 = new JLabel ("Devil Above", icon, SwingConstants.CENTER); label3.setHorizontalTextPosition (SwingConstants.CENTER); label3.setVerticalTextPosition (SwingConstants.BOTTOM); JPanel panel = new JPanel(); panel.setBackground (Color.cyan); panel.setPreferredSize (new Dimension (200, 250)); panel.add (label1); panel.add (label2); panel.add (label3); frame.getContentPane().add(panel); frame.pack(); frame.setVisible(true); } } Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. continued label2 = new JLabel ("Devil Right", icon, SwingConstants.CENTER); label2.setHorizontalTextPosition (SwingConstants.LEFT); label2.setVerticalTextPosition (SwingConstants.BOTTOM); label3 = new JLabel ("Devil Above", icon, SwingConstants.CENTER); label3.setHorizontalTextPosition (SwingConstants.CENTER); label3.setVerticalTextPosition (SwingConstants.BOTTOM); JPanel panel = new JPanel(); panel.setBackground (Color.cyan); panel.setPreferredSize (new Dimension (200, 250)); panel.add (label1); panel.add (label2); panel.add (label3); frame.getContentPane().add(panel); frame.pack(); frame.setVisible(true); } } Summary Chapter 3 focused on: object creation and object references the String class and its methods the Java standard class library the Random and Math classes formatting output enumerated types wrapper classes graphical components and containers labels and images Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 

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