Java Software Solutions - Chapter 11: Exception

Exception handling is an important aspect of object-oriented design

Chapter 11 focuses on:

the purpose of exceptions

exception messages

the try-catch statement

propagating exceptions

the exception class hierarchy

 

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Chapter 11Exception Java Software Solutions Foundations of Program Design Seventh Edition John Lewis William Loftus Exceptions Exception handling is an important aspect of object-oriented design Chapter 11 focuses on: the purpose of exceptions exception messages the try-catch statement propagating exceptions the exception class hierarchy 10-2 Outline 10-3 Exception Handling The try-catch Statement Exception Classes I/O Exceptions Exceptions An exception is an object that describes an unusual or erroneous situation Exceptions are thrown by a program, and may be caught and handled by another part of the program A program can be separated into a normal execution flow and an exception execution flow An error is also represented as an object in Java, but usually represents a unrecoverable situation and should not be caught 10-4 Exception Handling Java has a predefined set of exceptions and errors that can occur during execution A program can deal with an exception in one of three ways: ignore it handle it where it occurs handle it an another place in the program The manner in which an exception is processed is an important design consideration 10-5 Exception Handling If an exception is ignored by the program, the program will terminate abnormally and produce an appropriate message The message includes a call stack trace that: indicates the line on which the exception occurred shows the method call trail that lead to the attempted execution of the offending line See Zero.java (page 533) 10-6 Outline 10-7 Exception Handling The try-catch Statement Exception Classes I/O Exceptions The try Statement To handle an exception in a program, the line that throws the exception is executed within a try block A try block is followed by one or more catch clauses Each catch clause has an associated exception type and is called an exception handler When an exception occurs, processing continues at the first catch clause that matches the exception type See ProductCodes.java (page 536) 10-8 The finally Clause A try statement can have an optional clause following the catch clauses, designated by the reserved word finally The statements in the finally clause always are executed If no exception is generated, the statements in the finally clause are executed after the statements in the try block complete If an exception is generated, the statements in the finally clause are executed after the statements in the appropriate catch clause complete 10-9 The finally Clause 10-10 Exception Propagation 10-11 Exception Bất cứ khi nào một lỗi xuất hiện trong khi thi hành chương trình, nghĩa là một ngoại lệ đã xuất hiện. Ngoại lệ phát sinh vào lúc thực thi chương trình theo trình tự mã. Mỗi ngoại lệ phát sinh ra phải bị bắt giữ , nếu không ứng dụng sẽ bị ngắt. Việc xử lý ngoại lệ cho phép bạn kết hợp tất cả tiến trình xử lý lỗi trong một nơi. Lúc đó đoạn mã của bạn sẽ rõ ràng hơn. Java sử dụng các khối ‘try’ và ‘catch’ để xử lý các ngoại lệ. Các câu lệnh trong khối ‘try’ chặn ngoại lệ còn khối ‘catch’ xử lý ngoại lệ. Các khối chứa nhiều catch có thể được sử dụng để xử lý các kiểu ngoại lệ khác nhau theo cách khác nhau. Từ khoá ‘throws’ liệt kê các ngoại lệ mà phương thức chặn. Từ khoá ‘throw’ chỉ ra một ngoại lệ vừa xuất hiện. Khối ‘finally’ khai báo các câu lệnh trả về nguồn tài nguyên cho hệ thống và in những câu thông báo 10-12 Exception Propagation An exception can be handled at a higher level if it is not appropriate to handle it where it occurs Exceptions propagate up through the method calling hierarchy until they are caught and handled or until they reach the level of the main method A try block that contains a call to a method in which an exception is thrown can be used to catch that exception See Propagation.java (page 539) See ExceptionScope.java (page 540) 10-13 Object Serialization Ngoại lệ Lớp cha của thứ tự phân cấp ngoại lệ RuntimeException Lớp cơ sở cho nhiều ngoại lệ java.lang ArthmeticException Trạng thái lỗi về số, ví dụ như ‘chia cho 0’ IllegalAccessException Lớp không thể truy cập IllegalArgumentException Phương thức nhận một đối số không hợp lệ ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsExeption Kích thước của mảng lớn hơn 0 hay lớn hơn kích thước thật sự của mảng NullPointerException Khi muốn truy cập đối tượng null SecurityException Việc thiết lập cơ chế bảo mật không được hoạt động ClassNotFoundException Không thể nạp lớp yêu cầu NumberFormatException Việc chuyển đối không thành công từ chuỗi sang số thực AWTException Ngoại lệ về AWT IOException Lớp cha của các ngoại lệ I/O FileNotFoundException Không thể định vị tập tin EOFException Kết thúc một tập tin NoSuchMethodException Phương thức yêu cầu không tồn tại InterruptedException Khi một luồng bị ngắt 10-14 Outline 10-15 Exception Handling The try-catch Statement Exception Classes I/O Exceptions Tool Tips and Mnemonics Combo Boxes Scroll Panes and Split Panes The Exception Class Hierarchy Classes that define exceptions are related by inheritance, forming an exception class hierarchy All error and exception classes are descendents of the Throwable interface A programmer can define an exception by extending the Exception class or one of its descendants The parent class used depends on how the new exception will be used 10-16 Checked Exceptions An exception is either checked or unchecked A checked exception either must be caught by a method, or must be listed in the throws clause of any method that may throw or propagate it A throws clause is appended to the method header The compiler will issue an error if a checked exception is not caught or asserted in a throws clause 10-17 Unchecked Exceptions An unchecked exception does not require explicit handling, though it could be processed that way The only unchecked exceptions in Java are objects of type RuntimeException or any of its descendants Errors are similar to RuntimeException and its descendants in that: Errors should not be caught Errors do not require a throws clause 10-18 The throw Statement Exceptions are thrown using the throw statement Usually a throw statement is executed inside an if statement that evaluates a condition to see if the exception should be thrown See CreatingExceptions.java (page 543) See OutOfRangeException.java (page 544) 10-19 Outline 10-20 Exception Handling The try-catch Statement Exception Classes I/O Exceptions Tool Tips and Mnemonics Combo Boxes Scroll Panes and Split Panes I/O Exceptions Let's examine issues related to exceptions and I/O A stream is a sequence of bytes that flow from a source to a destination In a program, we read information from an input stream and write information to an output stream A program can manage multiple streams simultaneously 10-21 Standard I/O There are three standard I/O streams: standard output – defined by System.out standard input – defined by System.in standard error – defined by System.err We use System.out when we execute println statements System.out and System.err typically represent a particular window on the monitor screen System.in typically represents keyboard input, which we've used many times with Scanner objects 10-22 The IOException Class Operations performed by some I/O classes may throw an IOException A file might not exist Even if the file exists, a program may not be able to find it The file might not contain the kind of data we expect An IOException is a checked exception 10-23 Writing Text Files In Chapter 5 we explored the use of the Scanner class to read input from a text file Let's now examine other classes that let us write data to a text file The FileWriter class represents a text output file, but with minimal support for manipulating data Therefore, we also rely on PrintStream objects, which have print and println methods defined for them 10-24 Writing Text Files Finally, we'll also use the PrintWriter class for advanced internationalization and error checking We build the class that represents the output file by combining these classes appropriately See TestData.java (page 547) Output streams should be closed explicitly 10-25 Summary Chapter 11 has focused on: the purpose of exceptions exception messages the try-catch statement propagating exceptions the exception class hierarchy 10-26 

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