Bài giảng Hệ điều hành - Chapter 5: InputOutput

5.1 Principles of I/O hardware

5.2 Principles of I/O software

5.3 I/O software layers

5.4 Disks

5.5 Clocks

5.6 Character-oriented terminals

5.7 Graphical user interfaces

5.8 Network terminals

5.9 Power management

 

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Input/Output Chapter 5 5.1 Principles of I/O hardware 5.2 Principles of I/O software 5.3 I/O software layers 5.4 Disks 5.5 Clocks 5.6 Character-oriented terminals 5.7 Graphical user interfaces 5.8 Network terminals 5.9 Power management Principles of I/O Hardware Some typical device, network, and data base rates Device Controllers I/O devices have components: mechanical component electronic component The electronic component is the device controller may be able to handle multiple devices Controller's tasks convert serial bit stream to block of bytes perform error correction as necessary make available to main memory Memory-Mapped I/O (1) Separate I/O and memory space Memory-mapped I/O Hybrid Memory-Mapped I/O (2) (a) A single-bus architecture (b) A dual-bus memory architecture Direct Memory Access (DMA) Operation of a DMA transfer Interrupts Revisited How interrupts happens. Connections between devices and interrupt controller actually use interrupt lines on the bus rather than dedicated wires Principles of I/O SoftwareGoals of I/O Software (1) Device independence programs can access any I/O device without specifying device in advance (floppy, hard drive, or CD-ROM) Uniform naming name of a file or device a string or an integer not depending on which machine Error handling handle as close to the hardware as possible Goals of I/O Software (2) Synchronous vs. asynchronous transfers blocked transfers vs. interrupt-driven Buffering data coming off a device cannot be stored in final destination Sharable vs. dedicated devices disks are sharable tape drives would not be Programmed I/O (1) Steps in printing a string Programmed I/O (2) Writing a string to the printer using programmed I/O Interrupt-Driven I/O Writing a string to the printer using interrupt-driven I/O Code executed when print system call is made Interrupt service procedure I/O Using DMA Printing a string using DMA code executed when the print system call is made interrupt service procedure I/O Software Layers Layers of the I/O Software System Interrupt Handlers (1) Interrupt handlers are best hidden have driver starting an I/O operation block until interrupt notifies of completion Interrupt procedure does its task then unblocks driver that started it Steps must be performed in software after interrupt completed Save regs not already saved by interrupt hardware Set up context for interrupt service procedure Interrupt Handlers (2) Set up stack for interrupt service procedure Ack interrupt controller, reenable interrupts Copy registers from where saved Run service procedure Set up MMU context for process to run next Load new process' registers Start running the new process Device Drivers Logical position of device drivers is shown here Communications between drivers and device controllers goes over the bus Device-Independent I/O Software (1) Functions of the device-independent I/O software Device-Independent I/O Software (2) (a) Without a standard driver interface (b) With a standard driver interface Device-Independent I/O Software (3) (a) Unbuffered input (b) Buffering in user space (c) Buffering in the kernel followed by copying to user space (d) Double buffering in the kernel Device-Independent I/O Software (4) Networking may involve many copies User-Space I/O Software Layers of the I/O system and the main functions of each layer DisksDisk Hardware (1) Disk parameters for the original IBM PC floppy disk and a Western Digital WD 18300 hard disk Disk Hardware (2) Physical geometry of a disk with two zones A possible virtual geometry for this disk Disk Hardware (3) Raid levels 0 through 2 Backup and parity drives are shaded Disk Hardware (4) Raid levels 3 through 5 Backup and parity drives are shaded Disk Hardware (5) Recording structure of a CD or CD-ROM Disk Hardware (6) Logical data layout on a CD-ROM Disk Hardware (7) Cross section of a CD-R disk and laser not to scale Silver CD-ROM has similar structure without dye layer with pitted aluminum layer instead of gold Disk Hardware (8) A double sided, dual layer DVD disk Disk Formatting (1) A disk sector Disk Formatting (2) An illustration of cylinder skew Disk Formatting (3) No interleaving Single interleaving Double interleaving Disk Arm Scheduling Algorithms (1) Time required to read or write a disk block determined by 3 factors Seek time Rotational delay Actual transfer time Seek time dominates Error checking is done by controllers Disk Arm Scheduling Algorithms (2) Shortest Seek First (SSF) disk scheduling algorithm Initial position Pending requests Disk Arm Scheduling Algorithms (3) The elevator algorithm for scheduling disk requests Error Handling A disk track with a bad sector Substituting a spare for the bad sector Shifting all the sectors to bypass the bad one Stable Storage Analysis of the influence of crashes on stable writes ClocksClock Hardware A programmable clock Clock Software (1) Three ways to maintain the time of day Clock Software (2) Simulating multiple timers with a single clock Soft Timers A second clock available for timer interrupts specified by applications no problems if interrupt frequency is low Soft timers avoid interrupts kernel checks for soft timer expiration before it exits to user mode how well this works depends on rate of kernel entries Character Oriented TerminalsRS-232 Terminal Hardware An RS-232 terminal communicates with computer 1 bit at a time Called a serial line – bits go out in series, 1 bit at a time Windows uses COM1 and COM2 ports, first to serial lines Computer and terminal are completely independent Central buffer pool Dedicated buffer for each terminal Input Software (1) Input Software (2) Characters handled specially in canonical mode Output Software The ANSI escape sequences accepted by terminal driver on output ESC is ASCII character (0x1B) n,m, and s are optional numeric parameters Display Hardware (1) Memory-mapped displays driver writes directly into display's video RAM Parallel port Display Hardware (2) A video RAM image simple monochrome display character mode Corresponding screen the xs are attribute bytes Input Software Keyboard driver delivers a number driver converts to characters uses a ASCII table Exceptions, adaptations needed for other languages many OS provide for loadable keymaps or code pages Output Software for Windows (1) Sample window located at (200,100) on XGA display Output Software for Windows (2) Skeleton of a Windows main program (part 1) Output Software for Windows (3) Skeleton of a Windows main program (part 2) Output Software for Windows (4) An example rectangle drawn using Rectangle Output Software for Windows (5) Copying bitmaps using BitBlt. before after Output Software for Windows (6) Examples of character outlines at different point sizes Network TerminalsX Windows (1) Clients and servers in the M.I.T. X Window System X Windows (2) Skeleton of an X Windows application program The SLIM Network Terminal (1) The architecture of the SLIM terminal system The SLIM Network Terminal (2) Messages used in the SLIM protocol from the server to the terminals Power Management (1) Power consumption of various parts of a laptop computer Power management (2) The use of zones for backlighting the display Power Management (3) Running at full clock speed Cutting voltage by two cuts clock speed by two, cuts power by four Power Management (4) Telling the programs to use less energy may mean poorer user experience Examples change from color output to black and white speech recognition reduces vocabulary less resolution or detail in an image 

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