Bài giảng Hệ điều hành - Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 What is an operating system

1.2 History of operating systems

1.3 The operating system zoo

1.4 Computer hardware review

1.5 Operating system concepts

1.6 System calls

1.7 Operating system structure

 

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Introduction Chapter 1 1.1 What is an operating system 1.2 History of operating systems 1.3 The operating system zoo 1.4 Computer hardware review 1.5 Operating system concepts 1.6 System calls 1.7 Operating system structure Introduction A computer system consists of hardware system programs application programs What is an Operating System It is an extended machine Hides the messy details which must be performed Presents user with a virtual machine, easier to use It is a resource manager Each program gets time with the resource Each program gets space on the resource History of Operating Systems (1) Early batch system bring cards to 1401 read cards to tape put tape on 7094 which does computing put tape on 1401 which prints output History of Operating Systems (2) First generation 1945 - 1955 vacuum tubes, plug boards Second generation 1955 - 1965 transistors, batch systems Third generation 1965 – 1980 ICs and multiprogramming Fourth generation 1980 – present personal computers History of Operating Systems (3) Structure of a typical FMS job – 2nd generation History of Operating Systems (4) Multiprogramming system three jobs in memory – 3rd generation The Operating System Zoo Mainframe operating systems Server operating systems Multiprocessor operating systems Personal computer operating systems Real-time operating systems Embedded operating systems Smart card operating systems Computer Hardware Review (1) Components of a simple personal computer Monitor Bus Computer Hardware Review (2) (a) A three-stage pipeline (b) A superscalar CPU Computer Hardware Review (3) Typical memory hierarchy numbers shown are rough approximations Computer Hardware Review (4) Structure of a disk drive Computer Hardware Review (5) One base-limit pair and two base-limit pairs Computer Hardware Review (6) (a) Steps in starting an I/O device and getting interrupt (b) How the CPU is interrupted (a) (b) Computer Hardware Review (7) Structure of a large Pentium system Operating System Concepts (1) A process tree A created two child processes, B and C B created three child processes, D, E, and F Operating System Concepts (2) (a) A potential deadlock. (b) an actual deadlock. Operating System Concepts (3) File system for a university department Operating System Concepts (4) Before mounting, files on floppy are inaccessible After mounting floppy on b, files on floppy are part of file hierarchy Operating System Concepts (5) Two processes connected by a pipe Steps in Making a System Call There are 11 steps in making the system call read (fd, buffer, nbytes) Some System Calls For Process Management Some System Calls For File Management Some System Calls For Directory Management Some System Calls For Miscellaneous Tasks System Calls (1) A stripped down shell: while (TRUE) {	/* repeat forever */ type_prompt( );	/* display prompt */ read_command (command, parameters)	/* input from terminal */ if (fork() != 0) {	/* fork off child process */ /* Parent code */ waitpid( -1, &status, 0);	/* wait for child to exit */ } else { /* Child code */ execve (command, parameters, 0);	/* execute command */ } } System Calls (2) Processes have three segments: text, data, stack System Calls (3) (a) Two directories before linking/usr/jim/memo to ast's directory (b) The same directories after linking System Calls (4) (a) File system before the mount (b) File system after the mount System Calls (5) Some Win32 API calls Operating System Structure (1) Simple structuring model for a monolithic system Operating System Structure (2) Structure of the THE operating system Operating System Structure (3) Structure of VM/370 with CMS Operating System Structure (4) The client-server model Operating System Structure (5) The client-server model in a distributed system Metric Units The metric prefixes 

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